Fort Phantom Hill

The occupation of Fort Phantom, north of Abilene, only lasted two years and five months.  Yet, on some days, it must have felt like a lifetime.

Soldiers traveled from forts in Arkansas and from the Indian Territory to erect this new fort.  The purpose of the fort was to protect travelers and settlers from Comanche raiding parties.

The grand, ghostly chimneys don’t begin to convey the hardships endured during these short years.  Yet, the feeling of isolation is still present even though a state highway divides the fort.

While living in tents, the soldiers constructed wooden houses for the officers using limited building supplies.  The enlisted men lived in pole huts with dirt floors and grass thatched roofs.

The Guard House or Jail was used to house soldiers for fighting or drinking whiskey, called bug juice.

Unusual for Texas, some houses had a cellar.

The ubiquitous Prickly Pear Cactus was as thorny a problem for them as for present day land owners.

Rattlesnakes are a fact of life in Texas. As the soldiers traveled to this location, a Texas Blue Norther struck.  Temperatures dropped quickly and the wind blew fiercely.  One teamster, twenty-seven oxen and mules froze to death in the sudden cold.

In the beginning, there were few problems from the Comanches.  But by 1853, travelers were attacked, some killed and scalped and others kidnapped.  After Indian Agent Jesse Stern was slain, the mood changed.  A new commander did not change the situation and the fort was abandoned.  As they left, he ordered that the fort be burned.

The water near the fort was full of minerals and tasted bad.  A deep well was dug but often ran dry, so water had to be hauled from a small spring four miles away.

Mesquite trees provided the only shade.

Hardships included scorching hot summers, freezing winters with ice and snow, and the ever present wind.  And, then, there were snakes, spiders, insects, ants, and other vermin.  There was rarely enough food and illnesses resulted.

What is it?

This stone bottom level of a two story commissary remains.

The monotonous view contained these three elements:  cacti, prairie grasses, and mesquites.

Across the present day highway, the Magazine still stands.  It was designed with a tall ceiling and vents to keep the gunpowder and shot dry.  The fort had muskets, rifles, and two brass cannons for protection.

Anyone want to go back to the good old days?  Not me.

“I cannot imagine that God ever intended white man to occupy such a barren waste land.”  Lt. Clinton W. Lear, Nov. 19, 1851

“Other states were carved or born, Texas grew from hide and horn.”  Berta Hart Nance

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Poppy Season

An overnight trip took us south to Austin and Fredericksburg.  Bright colors abound at one of my favorite nursuries:  Wildseed Farms.

Two of my husband’s favorite places are Abuelo’s Mexican Restaurant and Mamacita’s Restaurant.  We indulged in both..

Guess our motto is never pass up a nursery or Mexican restaurant.

Red Corn Poppies (Papaver rhoeas) and Showy Primrose (Oenothera speciosa) were blooming everywhere on the nursery grounds.

Very tall Chollo Cactus tower about eleven feet high in the air.

Rocket Larkspurs (Delphinium ajacis) stand primly in place.  Way too early for them in our zone 7b area.

Think this is Scarlet Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus coccineus).  Also known as Claret Cup Cactus or Scarlet Beehive Cactus, they grow farther west, starting around San Angelo.  Guess it stays warm enough in the winter for them at the nursery.

Of course, this time of the year means Bluebonnets (Lupinus texensis).  It’s nearly the end of their prime time.  The yellow Poppies are probably California Poppies (Eschscholzia californica).

The metal cactus are attractive and look great in the nursery setting.

Jerusalem Sage (Phlomis fruticosa) is a great pollinator plant.  Mine froze this winter, even though labels say it is cold hardy to zone 7a.

More Primroses.  The word “sweet” comes to mind when I see them.

Wow!  Wow! Wow!  How gorgeous is that.  Fields of Red Corn Poppies are so bright.

This sight reminded me that red poppies are worn to honor veterans.  The practice started after WWI.

The blue strip behind the Poppies are Bluebonnets.

The Wildseed Farms grow all these flowers for the seeds.  The owner uses larger properties near Houston to raise even more flowers.  Early last year, floods covered those fields and wiped out much of his seed supply for this year.

The Poppy petals are as thin as one-ply toilet paper and more fragile.  They flutter in the wind creating constant movement.

There are lots of walking trails near the wildflower fields and closer to the buildings, making it a pleasure to visit in a garden-like setting.

Don’t know what this tree is.  Maybe a Waterfall or Laceleaf Weeping Japanese maple?

Waterlilies in a small pond beside the tree in the previous picture.

One last look at Poppies as we exit the area.

Composed at the battlefield on May 3, 1915, during the second battle of Ypres, Belgium, following the death of a close friend.

“In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks still bravely singing fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.”

Canadian John McCrae

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Prickly Plants

Last Saturday we attended a Native Plant Society of Texas Symposium at the Lady Bird Johnson Center in Austin.  There were some interesting speakers and one that read her speech.  Boring.

Afterwards, we strolled the gardens even it’s still early for many plants to be growing.

It is the season for the Texas Mountain Laurel (Dermatophyllum secundiflorum) to display their clusters of purple flowers that smell strongly of grape kool-aid.

There were also a few Giant Spiderworts (Tadescantia gigantea) already blooming.

Some sculptures from stone and thick glass were fascinating.

Nice use of stock tanks.

Another featured sculpture.  I’m not sure if these are permanent or not.

The stone is limestone, which contains lots of shells.

Muhlies are currently poplular as landscape plants.  The genus of this plant is named for a German Lutheran minister, Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, who lived in Pennsylvania in the late 18th century and early 19th century.  He was also a botanist, chemist, and mineralogist.

This one is Pine Muhly (Muhlenbergia dubia Forn. ex Hemsl).

The Texas Persimmon or Mexican Persimmon (Diospyros texana scheele) is a small multi-branched tree that usually grows to about 15 feet tall.  The orange fruit turns to black when ripe.  Before it ripens, the fruit is so tart that it makes one’s mouth pucker.
Childhood memories of eating orange persimmons on my uncle’s farm makes me avoid them altogether now.

Lovely.

Cholla Cactus (Cylindropuntia imbricata) or Tree Cholla or Walking Stick Cholla grows in the hot deserts of West Texas or high in the Colorado mountains.

As a native Texan raised in West Texas where sharp, pointed, prickly plants are common, it is not my preferred type of plant.  But the violet flowers on these are bright and very pretty.
Green Sotol (Dasylirion leiophyllum) is another pokey plant.  Interestingly, it is used to produce an alcoholic drink called sotol.

Apache Plume (Fallugia paradoxa) is in the rose family.  How crazy is that.  It has white flowers and silvery or pink puffs of fruit heads that are said to resemble an Apache headdress.

I know that some people really love these plants.  There are many of these rustic plants growing out in the fields here, so we can enjoy them as we take walks.  But in my yard, I love flowers and more tame looking plants.

Thanks for taking the time to ready my blog.

“No one was ever named ‘Hero’ for following the crowd.  Heroes set their own course.”  Johnathan Lockwood Huie

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Eden

A small town in the midst of scrub brush in flat West Texas has a garden, which was the result of one man’s labor.

eden01The Garden of Eden has some surprising elements.  It’s been two years since I last visited, and it has changed some.

eden1A large plastic tank has recycling water – nice soothing sound.

eden2An old milk can is used as the spout vessel.  I’m surprised that it hasn’t rusted out.

eden3Flame Acanthus (Aniscanthus quadrifidus var. quadrifidus var. wrightii) is scattered throughout the garden.  Once established, it’s very hardy.

eden4No surprise that hummingbirds and butterflies visit the tubular flowers.  It is drought tolerant and even does well in poor soils.

eden5Coral Honeysuckle or Trumpet Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) has become a bramble beside the metal archway where it was originally trained to grow.

eden7A banana tree growing in West Texas.  Hard to believe that it can withstand the dry heat or the winter temperatures.  Yet, here it is producing bananas.

eden6This was a volunteer plant that came up and no one has been able to identify it.

eden8Lots of pretty grasses.  Although many ornamental grasses last only one year, this one must be perennial.

edenaNative Morning Glory grabs hold of lots of bushes and intertwines in the stems and leaves.  Here it is growing among Mexican Petunias.

edenbThe yellow flowers are Texas Yellow Bells (Tacoma stans), which is a beloved plant that is native to far West Texas in the Big Bend area.  It is a tall shrub with gorgeous flowers that is drought tolerant and abides limestone soils.

However, cold winters have done mine in.  But I keep trying to save one.

eden02Although this garden has been turned over to the city and depends on volunteers for maintenance, the man who planted it is still very much involved.

edencTypical agave with Mexican Petunias behind them.  Agaves are not all that cold hardy, so I’m surprised to see them here.

edendTangerine Beauty Crossvine (Bignonia capreolate ‘Tangerine Beauty’) is a perfect fit for this part of Texas.  It is cold hardy, endures the hot summers, and is pretty, to boot.

edeneTexas Sotol (Dasylirion leiophyllum) is a common sight in pastures and is extremely hardy.  It has sharp edges, so it should not be planted close to walkways.

edenfAnother hardy plant, Salvia Greggii Red Sage has a pleasant scent, especially when brushed as one passes by it.  It is a semi woody plant that is native to Texas and Mexico.  It thrives in the heat but does not tolerant wet feet.

edengAs a soft plant for touching, Artemesia in the Mugwort family is a wonderful choice.  They are grown for their silvery-green foliage and for their wonderful aroma.

edenhMore Yellow Bells

edeniFour O’clocks (Mirabilis jalapa) were grown by the Aztecs for medicinal and ornamental purposes.  They spread profusely.  Where each black seed falls, a new plant will spring up.  The seeds can be seen in the picture where spend flowers have fallen.

edenjPalo Verde Trees (Parkinsonia aculeata) are desert trees that have pretty yellow flowers in the spring.  Maybe the mild winters the last few years have allowed this one to get a foothold.
edenkA clever tin man that I would like to duplicate but finding the right size cans could be a problem.

Although most of the plants in this garden are what one would expect to see in this area, it seems lush with the paths winding through tall shrubs and full plantings.

“Knowledge is knowing what to say.  Wisdom is knowing when to say it.”  unknown

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Cooler Temps

Twenty degrees makes a world of difference.  From 95 degrees to 75 degrees recently has perked up everything.  It’s nice to have the weather match the calendar.

Also, we were blessed with six inches of rain.

coolautumn6Turk’s Cap (Malvaviscus arboreus) is a winner.  It was named a Texas Superstar by Texas A & M in 2011.  And that it is.

coolautumn7Pictures of the garden really points out flaws.  In this photo I noticed the Hackberry tree growing in the Salvia Greggi.  I have since cut it down.  Behind the salvia is hardy Russian Sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia)  and several different rose bushes.

coolautumn8In front is Double Delight rose, then Tropicana rose with tall Knock-Outs in the background.

coolautumn5Purple Aster didn’t perform very well this year because it needs to be divided.  I’ve read that should be done in early spring.

coolautumn3The dead pods on the Purple Coneflowers (Echinacea purpurea)  are beginning to bug me.  I was leaving them as food for birds this winter.  But I decided to cut the heads off and leave them in the flowerbed.  Then the stems can be eliminated.  That way the birds can forage on the ground, and the dead plants are not an eyesore.

The Strawberry Gomphera (Gomphrena globosa) bloomed in the spring, hot summer, and now into autumn.  Even though they are small, their bright color gives a great bang for the buck.  They also reseed generously.

coolautumnaMexican Petunias (Ruellia simplex) are still going strong.

coolautumncThey don’t bloom with a great mass, but the delicate tubular flowers on the ends of tall stalks are pretty.

coolautumndCannas have revived with some red flowers.

coolautumneBlue Mist Flower (Conoclinium coelestinum) fuzzy puffs continue to draw butterflies.

coolautumnfA few flowers remain on Pink Gaura (Gaura lindheimeri), but leaves have dropped off.

coolautumnkDuranta (Duranta erecta) is a hot weather plant but has seemed to like the cooler weather.  Love it.

coolautumnmWhat is prettier than these clusters of tiny purple flowers?

Several potted plants still look good:

coolautumnhRussian Sage, Turk’s Cap, and Kolanche in pots provide some color.

coolautumniFinally, the Bougainvilla has a few blooms.  Don’t know what the problem is, but thes are the first flowers this year.  Probably didn’t fertilize it.

coolautumnjAfrican Bulbine’s (Bulbine frutescens ‘Orange’) flowers wave in the wind.  All of these potted plants will have to go into the shed for the winter.

hibiscusHibiscus is looking good.  The wet weather is agreeing with it.

hibiscus1Love the color of the flowers.

hibiscus2This tropical Hibiscus has been in this pot for eight years.  The beautiful flowers make it worth hauling into the shed each winter.

coolautumnoIce Plant will die back during the winter.  I used to always have a start inside, but it has come back from the last two winters, so that doesn’t seem necessary.

ContainerPlants1Purple Oxalis (Oxalis triangularis) or False Shamrock has been in this pot for years.

coolautumn1Last week I was working at the Brady Master Gardener’s Butterfly Garden.  I thought that Monarchs had already passed through this area, but I was obviously wrong.

coolautumn2I love Maxamillan Sunflowers (Helianthus maximiliani) with lots of flowers on each stalk.  They grow in the bar ditches around here.

The cooler weather is great, but it also means winter will be here soon and flowers will be gone.  But winter is what makes spring so special.

“Holding a grudge is letting someone live rent free in your head.”  unknown

A Walk Following Freezes

One sunny afternoon a couple of weeks ago, we took a walk through some pastures.

winterwalkLots of tall dried Broomweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) or Broom snakeweed to get through.  Fortunately, cows had made a passable path.

Bloomweed is a prenniel with small yellow flowers from June to October.  It can take over pastures preventing grasses from growing.

It is also toxic to cattle, sheep, and goats.  So Broomweed is not a desirable plant.

winterwalk2Lots of dead grasses shine in the late afternoon sun.

winterwalk3An old plow use to till the soil.  I think.

winterwalk4Don’t know what decade this is from.

winterwalk5Garden chairs like this rusting one can often be seen in “antique” stores.

winterwalk8

winterwalk6

winterwalk9This tiny Prairie Verbena still blooming was a surprise.  They are hardy, though.

winterwalkaA Live Oak that has succumbed to Oak Wilt.  A sad reality that is widespread in Texas.

winterwalkb Agarita (Mahonia trifoliolata) is an evergreen.  I recently read that it’s a good barrier shrub because it is so prickly.

winterwalkcAn overturned old deer blind lies next to a Live Oak.  The low sun provides interesting shadows.

winterwalkdAt the bottom of this dead oak is a deep hole – probably a fox lair.

winterwalkeOne area of our property has some Post Oak trees.  Those are not common here, so the soil must have just enough sand to suit their needs.  Post Oaks are finicky and don’t like human interference.  But their leaf production is prolific.

winterwalkiBare branches with a pretty form.

The small sign beside this tree is one of a Burma Shave style of old road signs.  Our group states that “Life is too short to live in the Metroplex.  Amazing Grace Ranch.”  Although we lived in the metroplex of Ft. Worth/Dallas for over 30 years, our personal lifestyle choice now embraces country living.

winterwalkhThis wagon is from the 1880’s.  Love to muse on where it traveled and what it meant to the survival of someone.

winterwalkj

winterwalkgThis iron brace may have been added later.

Beauty is all around us, even in stark winter.

“Nostalgia is a file that removes the rough edges from the good old days.”  Doug Larson

Natty Flat

Nothing says road trip like a stop at a local attraction.  As a kid, we always headed west for vacations to visit Indian ruins and natural wonders like the Painted Desert.  As we traveled those long, straight highways through sage-strewn flat land, we looked for the huge billboards advertising an Indian Trading Post coming up.  They promised unusual exhibits like dozens of live rattlesnakes or the real saddle of some famous outlaw.

In reality, it was a tourist trap full of trinkets probably made in some factory back east.  But we loved the chance to get out of the car and spend the allowance money we had been saving, taking lots of time to wander the aisles and look at everything.

nattyflat9Natty Flat is not exactly that sort of tourist place.  It started out as a small Barbeque restaurant and a store to sell western goods.  Those are not cheap trinkets, either.

Two brothers were ingenious in combining several talents for this enterprise.  One owns the restaurant, where the BBQ really is outstanding.  The other runs the store, which sells furniture as well as other western goods.  He also makes most of the furniture.  The over sized rifle in the picture is one of his creations.  It has already been sold so don’t hanker for it.

nattyflat8Red cedar, which is plentiful in the area, provides the materials needed for his craft.

nattyflat7This rocking chair is the main landmark for Natty Flat.  The telephone pole gives prospective for its height.

nattyflat6 Throw in a little western decor and it draws the people in.

nattyflat3Behind the windmill is the store.

nattyflat5They do a good job of putting a few brightly colored annuals to add more interest.  The Prickly Pear Cactus blooms also pop.

nattyflat4Petunias make this water trough attractive.

nattyflatThe owners’ sense of humor is evident in several places.  The above sign is hard to read, so here goes:

This rock never fails.  It’s 100% correct.
Here’s how it works.
If it’s wet, it’s raining.
If it’s dry, there’s fair weather.
If it’s dusty, there’s a dust storm
If it’s white, it’s snowing.
If it’s swaying, it’s windy.
If there’s a shadow under the rock, it’s sunny.
If you can’t see it, it’s foggy.
If it’s jumping up and down, there’s an earthquake.
If the bottom is under water, it’s a flood.
If it’s dry and still, just wait a minute, and it will change.
If everything is moving and you’re not, you’re drunk.

nattyflat2

nattyflat1These really are the restrooms for the restaurant.  But they are not the traditional holes of an outhouse.  Just a modern day toilet inside.

Note the pretty Yucca blooms beside it.  Flowers make anything look good.

nattyflataAmong Purple Sage, Prickly Pear, and a dying cedar is an old decaying wagon.

nattyflatbRusty metal and Prickly Pear is the perfect depiction of West Texas.

See more at Natty Flat.  It’s just south of I 20 at the Stephenville exit.  I think it’s worth a stop, especially for the grub.

“Keep away from folks who try to belittle your ambitions.  Small people always do that, but the really great make you feel that you, too, can become great.”  Mark Twain

Prickly Pear: Pest or Prize

Even though we grumble and grouse about them, they ain’t going anywhere.  And that’s not for lack of trying.

pricklypear9I am talking about the Prickly Pear Cactus.  They are ubiquitous on vast areas of the southwestern US and northern Mexico.

pricklypear7All true cactus species are native only to the Americas, but have been introduced to other places.

Prickly Pears are also called tuna for the fruit or nopal for the paddle.  Nopal is an Nahuatl word.  Nahuatl was the language of the Aztecs, and several varieties of it are still spoken in central Mexico.

pricklypear6These plants have been around a long time.

pricklypear4This is actually the time of the year when they take center stage and shine with their bright yellow blooms.  We even comment on how pretty they look in the fields.

top12sprayBut as I mentioned, most people try to get rid of Prickly Cactus.

Nine years ago my husband received a government grant to spray 23 acres of cacti with a potent pesticide.  Why does the US government care about cactus?  Because they are water guzzlers in arid area.  Land needs to be cleared of cacti so that crops or grasses for grazing can be grown.

In order to buy and use this spray, he had to take a class and a test for a private pesticide applicator license.

top34sprayerThe spraying was done in the hottest part of the summer.  So it was an uncomfortable job.  But it worked, for a few years. Then other cactus grew, and those fields are filled again with prickly pears.

Nature seems more determined than we are.

pricklypear3Since they are a fact of life here, we choose (most of the time) to enjoy the delicate flowers in the spring and early summer and avoid the thorns.  That means the larger, obvious spikes and the fine hair ones that get embedded into the skin and take a long time to work themselves out.

pricklypear5Some paddles form some interesting shapes, like this heart.

pricklypear8Or fat fingers on hands at the top of this picture.  You might need some imagination for this one.

pricklypear2For such a nuisance, this plant has a delicate, lovely looking flower.

So the question is:  how many are too many?

“A graduation ceremony is an event where the commencement speaker tells thousands of students dressed in identical caps and gowns that ‘individuality’ is the key to success.”
Robert Purvis

Country Lanes

Texas has five distinctive areas:  the Panhandle with extreme cold winters and dry barren landscapes; East Texas with plentiful rainfall and deep woods; Central Texas with tree covered hills and mild weather; West Texas with dry, sandy flat land and little rain; and South Texas with harsh desert conditions, some rocky mountains and flat lands.

We like to consider ourselves as being at the top of the Hill Country or Central Texas.  That’s stretching the truth a little – actually, a lot.  Truthfully, we have some characteristics like West Texas such as the dry climate, but we also have hills and trees and other plants like the Hill Country but colder winters.

All this to explain more about life in Texas than you may have wanted to know.

Countylanes4As we pull out of our gate this time of the year, these small native Redbuds are in our view.  They are small because the county machines chop them down every year or every other year.

Countylanes5Up close the buzzing of the bees is loud.

Countylanes6But they flew away when I approached them, so I didn’t get a picture of them.  I guess it’s a good thing rather than being attacked.

CountylanesFurther down our county road these bushes bloom in the spring.

Countylanes16jpgA botanist friend is willing to identify plants for me from pictures.  He tells me that are seven native plum trees in our area making identification difficult.  But this one is Sand Plum (Prunus gracilis).

Countylanes16jpgHe said it blooms later in the spring than others.  Thanks, Jack, for the info.

Countylanes3Spider web?  Information from a reader:  this is a pupa from a Tent Caterpillar

Countylanes7When I took this picture, I thought the red on this Ocotillo was berries.  But they look like flowers in this picture; they do bloom in March, so I’m not sure which it is.  Ocotillo is indigenous to the desert southwest in the US.  It is also called Candlewood, Slimwood, Coachwhip, Vine Cactus, Flaming Sword, and Jacob’s Staff.

It grows here because the rocky soil provides good drainage, and the summers are hot.

Correction:  this might be a different variety of an Ocotillo  or a Pencil Cactus or something else entirely.  Anyone know?

Countylanes8Little patches of Bluebonnets (Lupinus texensis) dot the countryside.  It’s near the end of their blooming season.

Countylanes10The Green Milkweed (Asclepias asperula) is abundant in our area.  The larvae of monarch butterflies eat only milkweed providing a necessary nutrient needed to develop.

The silky fluff from the seed was used by pioneers to make candle wicks.  They would card it and then spin it like cotton.

Countylanes11The White Prickly Poppy (Argemone albiflora) or Texas prickly poppy oblviously gets its name from the stems.   Their stems are short now, but most will be a foot and a half tall in the summer time.

Countylanes123jpgThe native Americans used this plant in medicines.  What kind, I don’t know.

Countylanes12Among all the other more prominent wildflowers are a few Wine Cups (Callirhoe involucrata).  They are a hardy, drought tolerant native to Texas and the central US. They are a full sun bloomer with the flowers closing each evening.  The dark color is spectacular.  I would love to see a full patch of them, but that’s rare here in nature.

“May your life be like a wildflower, growing freely in the beauty and joy of each day.” Native American Proverb

Dry, Dry Winter

Those few days that are warm enough to take long walks this winter have been a treat.  Of course, our bodies are not acclimated to the cold like those souls in our northern states.  We are accustomed to the long sizzling hot summers.

blahwinter2The dry fields seen from above take on a golden cast, but they are dry and dusty.  The predictable green comes from our ever present Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) or Texas mountain cedar.  Getting rid of these water guzzling cedars has been our mission since we moved here.  Our long sunny days and rocky, limestone soil is an ideal hothouse for them.

blahwinter7While looking for green and art shots, I take this picture of a hunter’s feeder.  Not sure if this counts as art.

blahwinter6For those unfamiliar with feeders to draw deer to a certain spot, the seeds or dried corn fall down into this motorized disperser on a timer that spins out the feed in a wide circle.  The cage protects the mechanism from four legged creatures.

blahwinter4Talk about sad and drab, this old hunter’s blind with its dry curled wood epitomizes our winter without moisture.

blahwinter5A little bit of fluff from some weeds flapping like a flag blown by wind.

blahwinter8Another attempt at an art shot; but it just reveals the bareness of dead grass and weeds with a pile of rocks thrown in.

blahwinterOne living plant that can be always be seen here is Prickly Pear Cactus.  The beautiful blooms will come in late spring and into early summer.

blahwinter3The creeks are so low that algae grew in the fall.  But it’s green.  Although the definition of a creek is a small stream, it’s mostly called a creek here in the southcentral and southwestern US.

blahwinter9Surely this twisted metal counts as artistic form.

Can you tell that I’m eager for spring.  But then I guess most everyone is.

“To shorten winter, borrow some money due in spring.”  W. J. Vogel